Green Growth

  A. The enrichment of previously poor countries is the most inspiring development of our time. It is also worrying. The environment is already under strain. What willhappen when the global population rises from 7 billion today to 9.3 billion in 2050, as demographers(人口统计学家) expect, and a growing proportion of these people can"afford goods that were once reserved for the elite? Can the planet support so much economic activity?

  B .Many policymakers adopt a top-down and Western-centfic approach to such planetary problems. They discuss ambitious regulations in global forums, or look to giant multinationals and well-heeled (富有的) NGOs to set an example. But since most people live in the emerging world, it makes sense to look at what successful companies there are doing to make growth more sustainable.

  C. A new study by the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) identifies 16 emerging-market firms that they say are turning eco-consciousness into a source of competitive advantage. These highly profitable companies (which the study calls "the new sustainability champions") are using greenery to reduce costs, motivate workers and forge relationships. Their home-grown ideas will probably be easier for their peers to copy than anything cooked up in the West.

  D. The most outstanding quality of these companies is that they turn limitationsof resources, labor and infrastructure) into opportunities. Thus, India"s Shree Cement, which has tong suffered from water shortages, developed the world"s most water-efficient method for making cement, in part by using air-cooling rather than water-cooling. Manila Water, a utility in the Philippines, reduced the amount of water it was losing, through wastage and illegal tapping, from 63% in 1997 to 12% in 2010 by making water affordable for the poor.

  Broad Group, a Chinese maker of air conditioners, taps the waste heat from buildings to power its machines. Zhangzidao Fishery Group, a Chinese aquaculture (水产养殖) company, recycles uneaten fish feed to fertilize crops.

  E.Setting green goals is a common practice. Sekem, an Egyptian food producer, set itself the task of reclaiming ( 开垦) desert land through organic farming. Florida Ice & Farm, a Costa Rican food and drink company, has adopted strict standards for the amount of water it can consume in producing drinks.

  F.These firms measure themselves by their greenery, too. Florida Ice & Farm, for example, links 60% of its boss"s pay to the triple bottom line of "people, planet and profit". The sustainability champions also encourage their workers to come up with green ideas. Natura, a Brazilian cosmetics company, gives bonuses to staff who find ways to reduce the firm"s impact on the environment. Masisa, a Chilean forestry company, invites employees to "imagine unimaginable businesses" aimed at poorer consumers. Woolworths, a South African retailer, claims that many of its best green ideas have come from staff, not bosses.

  G.In emerging markets it is hard for companies to stick to one specialism, because they have to worry about so many wider problems, from humble infrastructure to unreliable supply chains. So the sustainability champions seek to shape the business environment in which they operate. They lobby (游说) regulators: Grupo Balbo, a Brazilian organic-sugar producer, is working with the Brazilian government to establish a certification system for organic products. They form partnerships with governments and NGOs. Kenya"s Equity Bank has formed an alliance with groups such as The International Fund for Agricultural Development to reduce its risks when lending to smallholders. Natura has worked with its suppliers to produce sustainable packaging, including a new "green" plastic derived from sugar cane.

  H. The firms also work hard to reach and educate poor consumers, often sacrificing short-term profits to create future markets. Masisa organizes local carpenters into networks and connects them to low-income furniture buyers. Broad Group has developed a miniature device for measuring air pollution that can fit into mobile phones. Jain Irrigation, an Indian maker of irrigation systems, uses dance and song to explain the benefits of drip irrigation to farmers who can"t read. Suntech, a Chinese solar-power company, has established a low- carbon museum to celebrate ways of reducing carbon-dioxide emissions.

  Rich became green, or green became rich?

  I.One could quibble (争辩)with BCG"s analysis. Phil Rosenzweig of Switzerland"s IMD business school has argued that management writers are prone to "the halo effect": they treat the temporary success of a company as proof that it has discovered some eternal principle of good management. The fact that some successful companies have embraced greenery does not prove that greenery makes a firm successful. Some firms, having prospered, find they can afford to splurge ( 挥霍) on greenery. Some successful firrns pursue greenery for public-relations purposes. And for every sustainable emerging champion, there are surely 100 firms that have prospered by belching ( 喷出 ) fumes into the air or pumping toxins into rivers.

  J.Nonetheless, the central message of the WEF-BCG study--that some of the best emerging-world companies are combining profits with greenery--is thought-provoking. Many critics of environmentalism argue that it is a rich-world luxury: that the poor need adequate food before they need super-clean air. Some even see greenery as a rich-world conspiracy ( 阴谋): the West grew rich by industrializing (and polluting ), but now wants to stop the rest of the world from following suit. The WEF-BCG report demonstrates that such fears are overblown. Emerging-world companies can be just as green as their Western rivals. Many have found that, when natural resources are scarce and consumers are cash-strapped ( 资金短缺的 ), greenery can be a lucrative(利润丰厚的) business strategy.

  46. An air-conditioner manufacturer uses the waste heat from buildings to supply its machines with power.

  47. Many critics of environmentalism hold the view that greenery is a rich-world luxury because that"s not what the poor people badly want.

  48. Workers of the sustainability champions are motivated to bring forward green ideas.

  49. It is meaningful to study what successful companies in the emerging world are doing to achieve more sustainable growth, since most people live there.

  50. It"s difficult for companies in emerging markets to keep focusing on one specific problem because they have many wider problems to worry about.

  51. Although some successful firms have embraced greenery, it doesn"t mean that greenery will lead to the success of a firm.

  52. It will probably be easier for companies to follow the home-grown ideas than those invented in the West.

  53. It has been found that greenery can be profitable when natural resources are scarce and consumers are short of cash.

  54. Sekem, which produces food in Egypt, set a goal to reclaim desert land through organic farming.

  55. To create future markets, the firms also make effort to reach and educate poor consumers, often at the cost of short-term profits.



  解析:题干意为,根据JosephWalther所说,只关注对上网成瘾的治疗,而不寻找其潜在的临床问题,这是不明智的。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Joseph Walther、unwise、instead of和potential clinicalissues,文中论及JosephWalther教授观点的内容出现在D段,该段倒数第二句提到,Walther教授认为尚无科学依据证实网瘾是由于使用互联网,而不是由其他因素造成的。该段最后一句则提到,Walther教授认为,如果只是关注和治疗上网成瘾,而不去寻找潜藏的临床问题,这绝对是不明智的。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为D。


  解析:题干意为,随着网络游戏变得流行,治疗中心在全球各地不断涌现。注意抓住题干中的关键信息online games、popular和treatment centres。文中论及全球涌现治疗中心的内容出现在J段,该段首句提到,随着网络游戏的流行,治疗中心在全球如雨后春笋般出现。其中,题干中的spring up对应原文中的popup,由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。


  解析:题干意为,在数日不间断地玩网络游戏之后,几名韩国男性因精疲力竭而死。注意抓住题干中的关键信息several South Korean men和exhausted。文中论及韩国人受到网瘾危害的内容出现在F段,该段第一句提到人们一致认为上网成瘾对人有害。该段最后一句则提到了几名韩国男性多日持续沉浸于网络游戏,因疲劳过度而死亡的例子。由此可知,题于是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F。


  解析:题干意为,Smallwood以欺诈和疏于告知其可能游戏成瘾的罪名控告NCsoft公司,并索取巨额的赔偿。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Smallwood、NCsoft和fraudanditsnegligence。文中论及Smallwood的内容出现在A段,该段提到,Craig SmMlwood因违反游戏规则,被游戏开发商韩国NCsoft公司封停了游戏账号,为此他极度抑郁,并陷入严重的偏执和幻想中。该段最后一句提到,Smallwoo以欺诈和过失为由控告NCsoft公司,声称该公司没有告诫他该游戏的“网瘾”危害,要求获得900多万美元的赔偿金。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。


  解析:题干意为,在韩国实行了网游宵禁,以阻止儿童在午夜之后继续玩网络游戏。注意抓住题干中的关键信息SouthKorea和gaming curfew。文中论及韩国实行网游宵禁的内容出现在G段,该段第一句提到,韩国政府要求游戏开发商对儿童采取网游宵禁,禁止他们在午夜到早晨8点之间玩游戏。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为G。


  解析:题干意为,尽管第五版的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》没有将网瘾归为“行为成瘾”,但是这种现象仍然需要进一步研究。注意抓住题干中的关键信息lntemet addiction、further studied和behavioraladdiction。文中论及第五版的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》如何界定网瘾的内容出现在c段。该段最后一句提到,去年,第五版《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》编撰小组决定,网瘾将不会被划入“行为成瘾”范畴——只有赌博行为被划入此列——但是有必要对网瘾进一步展开研究。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为C。


  解析:题干意为,一位互联网专家发现大多数学生在意识到自己玩得太过火后,就会恢复自控。注意抓住题干中的关键信息college students和restore self-control。文中论及大学生可以自控上网行为的内容出现在K段,该段第四句提到,在对大学生展开的一项研究中,BobLaRose发现他们中的大多数人一旦感觉自己玩得太过火,就会恢复自控。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为K。


  解析:题干意为,根据心理健康专家所说,对于很多人来说,玩电子游戏、浏览色情作品以及通过电子邮件和社会网络收发信息这三种网络行为可能会成为问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息mental-healthspecialists、video games、pornography and messagin9和problematic。文中论及这一事实的内容出现在B段,该段第二句提到,心理健康专家认为有三种网络行为对很多人来说可能是问题性的(即容易停不下来):玩电子游戏、浏览色情作品以及通过电子邮件和社交网络收发信息。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。


  解析:题干意为,在许多人看来,如果在一次商业午餐中,没有人拿出手机查看信息,那这简直是一个小的奇迹。注意抓住题干中的关键信息miracle、a phone和a business lunch。文中论及商业午餐的内容出现在H段。该段第三句提到,如果在一次商业午餐中,没有人拿出手机查看信息,那么在许多人看来这都算是个小小的奇迹。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。


  解析:题干意为,KimbedyYoung强调人们必须学会应对互联网引发的新问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Kimberly Young insists、new problems和the Intemet。文中论及Kimberly Young相关观点的内容出现在E段,该段第三句提到,Youn9强调,互联网环境具有强大的吸引力,人们必须学会应对由其引发的新问题。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。


  Addicted, Really?

  A. Mental-health specialists disagree over whether to classify compulsive online behaviour as addiction---and how to treat it. Craig Smallwood, a disabled American war veteran, spent more than 20,000 hours over five years playing an online role-playing game called "Lineage II". When NCsoft, the South Korean firm behind the game, accused him of breaking the game"s rules and banned him, he was plunged into depression, severe paranoia (偏执) and hallucinations (幻想). He spent three weeks in hospital. After that, he sued NCsoft for fraud and negligence (过失 ), demanding over $ 9m in damages and claiming that the company acted negligently by failing to warn him of the danger that he would become "addicted" to the game.

  B. But does it make sense to talk of addiction to online activity? Mental-health specialists say three online behaviors can become problematic for many people: video games, pornography ( 色情作品 ) and messaging via e-mail and social networks. But there is far less agreement about whether any of this should be called "Internet addiction"--or how to treat it.

  C. Some mental-health specialists wanted "Internet addiction" to be included in the fifth version of psychiatry"s bible, the"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", known as DSM-V, which is currently being overhauled (全面修订). The American Medical Association endorsed (赞成) the idea in 2007, only to backtrack( 放弃) days later. The American Journal of Psychiatry called Internet addiction a "common disorder" and supported its recognition. Last year the DSM-V drafting group made its decision: lnteruet addiction would not be included as a "behavioral addiction"--only gambling made the cut--but it said further study was necessary.

  D. Skeptics say there is nothing uniquely addictive about the Internet. Back in 2000, Joseph Walther, a communications professor at Michigan State University, co-wrote an article in which he suggested, tongue in cheek, that the criteria used to call someone an Internet addict might also show that most professors were "addicted" to academia (学术活动). He argued that other factors, such as depression, are the real problem.

  He stands by that view today. "No scientific evidence has emerged to suggest that lnternet use is a cause rather than a consequence of some other sort of issue," he says. "Focusing on and treating people for Internet addiction, rather than looking for underlying clinical issues, is definitely unwise."

  E. Others disagree. "That would be wrong," says Kimberly Young, a researcher and therapist who has worked on Interact addiction since 1994. She insists that the Internet, with its powerfully immersive environments, creates new problems that people must learn to navigate(应对). Otherwise, the changing lifestyle will affect the development of the society.

  F.No one disputes that online habits can turn toxic. Take South Korea, where widespread broadband means that the average high-school student plays video games for 23 hours each week. In 2007 the government estimated that around 210,000 children needed treatment for Internet addiction. In 2010 newspapers around the globe carried the story of a South Korean couple who fed their infant daughter so little that she starved to death. Instead of caring for the child, the couple spent most nights at an Internet cafe, sinking hours into a role- playing game in which they raised, fed and cared for a virtual daughter. And several South Korean men have died from exhaustion after marathon, multi-day gaming sessions.

  G. The South Korean government has since asked game developers to adopt a gaming curfew (宵禁) for children, to prevent them playing between midnight and 8 a.m. At the same time, it has also opened more than 100 clinics for Internet addiction and sponsored an "Internet rescue camp" for serious cases.

  H. But compulsive behaviour is not limited to garners. E-mail or web-use behaviours can also show signs of addiction. Getting through a business lunch in which no one pulls out a phone to check their messages now counts as a minor miracle in many quarters. A deluge (泛滥) of self-help books, most recently "Alone Together" by Sherry Turlde, a social scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offer advice on how to unplug (去除障碍).

  I.Pornography is hardly new, either, but the Internet makes accessing it much easier than ever before. When something can be summoned in an instant via broadband, whether it is a game world, an e-mail inbox or pornographic material, it is harder to resist. New services lead to new complaints. When online auction sites first became popular, talk of "eBay addiction" soon followed. Dr. Young says women complain to her now about addiction to Facebook--or even to "FarmVille", a game playable only within Facebook.

  J.Treatment centres have popped up around the world with the popularity of online games. In 2006 Amsterdam"s Smith & Jones facility billed itself as "the first and, currently, the only residential video-game treatment program in the world". In America the reSTART Internet Addiction Recovery Program claims to treat Internet addiction, gaming addiction, and even "texting addiction". In China, meanwhile, military-style "boot camps" are the preferred way to treat Internet problems.

  K. Yet many people like feeling permanently connected. As Arikia Millikan, an American blogger, once put it, "If I could be jacked in at every waking hour of the day, I would, and I think a lot of my peers would do the, same." Bob LaRose, an Internet specialist at Michigan State University, doesn"t believe her. In his research on college students, he found that most sense when they are "going overboard and restore self-control". Less than1% have a pathological(病态的) problem, he adds. For most people, Internet use "is just a habit--and one that brings us pleasure."

  46. According to Joseph Walther, it is unwise to emphasize the treatment of Internet addiction instead of seeking for potential clinical issues.

  47. As online games become popular, treatment centres have sprung up all over the world.

  48. After playing online games continuously for days, several South Korean men were exhausted to death.

  49. Smallwood sued NCsoft and claimed a huge compensation for fraud and its negligence of warning him of the danger of game addiction.

  50. In South Korea, a gaming curfew for children was adopted to prevent children playing after midnight.

  5l. Internet addiction still needs to be further studied though the DSM-V did not categorize it as a "behavioral addiction".

  52. An lnternet specialist found that most college students could realize when they are going too far and restore self-control.

  53. According to mental-health specialists, for many people, video games, pornography and messaging via e-mail and social networks can become problematic online behaviors.

  54. People regard it as a small miracle if nobody takes out a phone to read the messages at a business lunch.

  55. Kimberly Young insists that people must learn to deal with new problems brought about by the Interact.